Linux Commands PDF

Linux is currently the most popular open source operating system, which can also be modified according to your convenience. It was developed by Linus Torvalds on 17 September 1991. If you are using Linux operating system then you should know all types of commands related to it. If you want to download Linux Commands List PDF then click on the link given below the article.

Linux Operating System Commands List PDF Download

The structure of any Unix operating system is made up of 4 components.

Kernel – This part is called the heart of Linux. Because it is the core part of the operating system. All types of commands and tasks are done with the help of kernel. It helps in communication between software and hardware. There is only one kernel in a Linux operating system.

Shell – This is a command line interpreter, which interconnects the user and the kernel. And all types of programs and commands are typed in the shell itself and executed with the help of Kernel. Because it deletes all types of commands and sends a request to the program to attribute it, it is also called a command interpreter.

Utilities – This part provides a powerful operating system to the person using Linux.

Hardware – It is the physical layer, in which all types of peripheral devices are connected.

Advantages of Linux Operating System

  • Linux is an open source operating system, which you can modify as per your wish.
  • It has been seen that the security of Linux is better than other operating systems. Whenever you want to access Linux, you need a login ID and password.
  • There is a free operating system, which you can download for free.
  • Linux OS is of very small size so that it does not use much memory of the computer.
  • Jai makes operating system software updates faster.
  • Other operating systems hang but it never hangs.
  • It supports all types of programming languages ​​C, C++, Java, Python.
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File Commands

IsDirectory listing
Is -alFormatted listing with hidden files
Is -ItSorting the Formatted listing by time modification
cd dirChange directory to dir
cdChange to home directory
pwdShow current working directory
mkdir dirCreating a directory dir
cat >filePlaces the standard input into the file
more fileOutput the contents of the file
head fileOutput the first 10 lines of the file
tail fileOutput the last 10 lines of the file
tail -f fileOutput the contents of file as it grows,starting with the last 10 lines
touch fileCreate or update file
rm fileDeleting the file
rm -r dirDeleting the directory
rm -f fileForce to remove the file
rm -rf dirForce to remove the directory dir
cp filel file2Copy the contents of filel to file2
cp -r dirl dir2Copy dir1 to dir2; create dir2 if not present
mv file1 file2Rename or move file1 to file2, if file2 is an existing directory
In -s file linkCreate symbolic link link to file

Process Management 

psTo display the currently working processes
topDisplay all running process
kill pidKill the process with given pid
killall procKill all the process named proc
pkill patternWill kill all processes matching the pattern
bgList stopped or background jobs,resume a stopped job in the background
fgBrings the most recent job to foreground
fg nBrings job n to the foreground

File Permission 

chmod octal fileChange the permission of file to octal,which can be found separately for user,group,world by adding, 4-read(r), 2-write(w), 1-execute(x)


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grep pattern fileSearch for pattern in file
grep -r pattern dirSearch recursively for pattern in dir
command | grep patternSearch pattern in the output of a command
locate fileFind all instances of file
find . -name filenameSearches in the current directory (represented by a period) and below it, for files and directories with names starting with filename
pgrep patternSearches for all the named processes , that matches with the pattern and, by default, returns their ID

System Information 

dateShow the current date and time
calShow this month’s calender
uptimeShow current uptime
WDisplay who is on line
whoamiWho you are logged in as
finger userDisplay information about user
uname -aShow kernel information
cat /proc/cpuinfoCpu information
cat proc/meminfoMemory information
man commandShow the manual for command
dfShow the disk usage
duShow directory space usage
freeShow memory and swap usage
whereis appShow possible locations of app
which appShow which applications will be run by default


tar cf file.tar fileCreate tar named file. tar containing file
tar xf file.tarExtract the files from file.tar
tar czf file.tar.gz filesCreate a tar with Gzip compression
tar xzf file.tar.gzExtract a tar using Gzip
tar cjf file.tar.bz2Create tar with Bzip2 compression
tar xjf file.tar.bz2Extract a tar using Bzip2
gzip fileCompresses file and renames it to file.gz
gzip -d file.gzDecompresses file.g back to file


ping hostPing host and output results
whois domainGet whois information for domains
dig domainGet DNS information for domain
dig -x hostReverse lookup host
wget fileDownload file
wget -c fileContinue a stopped download


ctrl+cHalts the current command
ctrl+zStops the current command, resume with fg in the foreground or bg in the background
ctrl+dLogout the current session, similar to exit
ctrl+wErases one word in the current line
ctrl+uErases the whole line
ctrl+rType to bring up a recent command
!!Repeats the last command
exitLogout the current session

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