The knowledge of grammar is necessary to express oneself in a language properly. In English, grammar is like scripture that helps us speak and write correctly. Words are formed by combining vowels and consonants, and phrases and sentences are constructed by following specific rules.
“We have discussed the Parts of Speech chart, its definition, and examples in PDF format.”
8 Parts of Speech
There are eight parts of speech in English grammar:
Nouns are words that represent a person, place, object, or idea. For example, Ram, Delhi, Chair, Horse, Truth, Happiness, and Gold are all nouns.
Types of Nouns: Nouns can be classified into five types:
- Proper Noun – This refers to the name of a specific person, place, or thing. For instance, Mahesh, Sita, Kanpur, and Yamuna are proper nouns.
- Common Noun – This refers to a general name given to an object or a person of a specific category. Examples include man, boy, school, cow, cat, and river.
- Collective Noun – This is a noun used to describe a group of things or people. Examples include class, family, army, and company.
- Material Noun – This refers to the name of any substance or metal. Examples include water, rice, sugar, iron, and gold.
- Abstract Noun – This refers to the name of any quality, state, work, or science. Examples include beauty, honesty, love, and power.
Pronouns are words that are used in place of a noun. Examples of pronouns include he, she, they, and we.
Types of Pronouns: There are seven types of pronouns:
- Personal Pronoun – This is used to refer to the speaker, the hearer, or the person/thing being discussed. Examples include I, we, you, he, she, it, and they.
- Reflexive Pronoun – This is used when the nominative and objective of a verb refer to the same person or thing. Examples include himself and yourself.
- Demonstrative Pronoun – This is used to refer to a specific person or thing and points to a noun. Examples include this and that.
- Relative Pronoun – This is used to relate to an earlier name, such as who, which, that, and what.
- Interrogative Pronoun – This is used to ask questions. Examples include what, which, and who.
- Indefinite Pronoun – This is used to refer to a person or thing that is not specific. Examples include few, any, and the same.
- Distributive Pronoun – This is used to refer to each of two or more persons. Examples include each and every.
Adjectives are used to describe or give more information about a noun or pronoun. Examples include fine, healthy, and beautiful.
Types of Adjectives: There are three types of adjectives:
- Adjective of Quality – This is used to describe the quality of a noun. Examples include a healthy boy and a beautiful girl.
- Adjective of Quantity – This is used to describe the quantity of a noun. Examples include much time and two boys.
- Demonstrative Adjective – This is used to indicate a specific person or thing. Examples include this school, that tree, and these benches.
A verb is a part of speech that reveals one’s being or doing. For example:
a. Mohan writes a letter. b. We eat mangoes.
In the above sentences, the words “write” and “eat” indicate an action or work. The first sentence provides knowledge about Mohan’s writing a letter, and the second sentence provides information about eating mangoes. There are two types of verbs:
- Transitive and
Transitive Verb – The verb that has an object in addition to the subject is called a Transitive Verb. For example:
Mohan reads his books.
In this sentence, the subject is Mohan. After “reads,” there is “books,” which is the object, and “read” is the Transitive Verb.
Intransitive Verb – When a sentence has only the person doing the verb and the action of the verb falls on the person who does it and not on any other, the verb is called Intransitive. For example:
In this sentence, the subject of “sleeps” is Ram. The effect of sleep also falls on Ram itself, hence “sleeps” is an Intransitive Verb.
The word that gives information about the quality, defect, condition, etc., of any other word except Noun and Pronoun is called an Adverb. For example:
a. The horse runs swiftly. b. The baby walks slowly.
In the above sentences, the property of the verb “runs” appears swiftly. “Walks slowly” implies the property of walking slowly, so “swiftly” and “slowly” are the Adverb words.
A Preposition is a word used before a noun or pronoun. It is used to reveal that the person or thing for which that Noun or Pronoun is, has to do with any other thing. For example:
The copy is on the table.
In this sentence, “on” is the Preposition. The table comes before the noun, and from this, it appears that the relation of the book table, i.e., the table with it, appears with the copy.
The word that joins words and sentences is called a Conjunction. For example:
a. Sheela and Lata are here. b. I want pen and paper. c. Mohan is poor, but Sohan is rich.
In the above sentences, “and” (both in the first and second) is a conjunction. In the first sentence, “Sheela and Lata” are joined by “and,” in the second sentence, “pen and paper” are joined by “and,” and in the third sentence, “Mohan is poor” and “Sohan is rich” are joined by “but.”
Words in which feelings of joy, controversy, surprise, etc., are expressed are called Interjection exclamatory words. For example:
a. Oh! What a beautiful flower you have. b. Oh! Gandhi ji is no more. c. Goodbye! Farewell.
In these sentences, the expressions of happiness from “Oh,” sorrow from “Ah,” and farewell from “Goodbye” are expressed. Therefore, “Oh,” “Ah,” and “Goodbye” are examples of Interjections.