Hindi Literature (हिंदी साहित्य) is the most popular subject in UPSC Civil Services Examination among Hindi medium students, which is taken up by most of the Hindi medium students as an optional subject in UPSC Mains.
Drishti IAS Institute for Hindi Literature is very popular because most of the students prepare for Hindi Literature from this educational institution. Dr. Vikas Divyakirti Hindi Literature Notes pdf are going to be very important for you because these notes cover the prose and verse part of the entire Hindi literature.
Vikas Divyakirti is a brilliant guy, cracked CSE (1996) in his 1st attempt. He founded Drishti IAS and saved & also saved the dream of millions of UPSC aspirants. He is no less than GOD for Hindi medium aspirants. you can download free Vikas Divyakirti Hindi Literature Notes (हिंदी साहित्य) pdf from the given link below.
|Created By||Vikas Divyakirti|
Hindi literature is one of the attention-getting and most preferred subject for the candidates having fair knowledge in this language. If you have not even done graduation from Hindi literature and if you have a strong hold on Hindi then you cannot choose it as an optional subject, there are 2 papers in the main examination of this subject, paper-I, paper-II.
Best Books For Hindi Sahitya
The following list mentions books for Hindi Literature from which a candidate may choose any, for their comfortable learning:
Aadhunik Sahitya ki Pravritiyan – Namavar Sinha
Kabeer ke Sabad – Dr. Sukadev Sinha
Prasāda Aura Skandgupta – Dr. Rēvatīramana
Triveni – Acharya Ramachandra Shukla
Khadi Boli ka Prarambhik Swaroop – Nilesh Jain
Kabeer –Param Anand Srivastav
Niraala Rachita Raam Kee Shakti Pooja Bhaashy –Dr. Surya Prasaad Dikshit
Mahaabhoj Mulyankan ke Paripekshy – Sadaanand Shaahee
Jaayasee Aakalan ke Aayaam- Sadanand Shaahee
Mohan Raakesh aur Ashadh ka Ek din –Gireesh Rastogi
Beginning of Hindi Literature
The beginning of Hindi literature is considered to be from the 8th century. This is the time when after the death of Emperor Harsha, many small government centers were established in the country, which used to conflict with each other. They also used to compete with Muslims. For the convenience of critics, the development of Hindi literature is divided into five historical stages, which are as follows:-
|Time Period (CE)||Name||Alternate Name|
|1000 – 1350||Aadi Kal||Veergatha Kal|
|1350 – 1650||Purvamadhyam Kal||Bhakti Kal|
|1650 – 1850||Uttarmadhyam Kal||Reeti Kal|
|1850 – Present||Adhunik Kal||Gadya Kal|
- Chand Bardai (1148–1191), author of Prithviraj Raso.
- Amir Khusro (1253–1325 AD), author of pahelis and mukris in the Hindavi dialect.
- Vidyapati (1352–1448), a prominent poet of Eastern dialects.
- Kabir (1398–1518), a major figure of the bhakti (devotional) movement.
- Surdas (1467–1583), author of Sahitya Lahari, Sur Saravali, Sur Sagar etc.
- Malik Muhammad Jayasi (1477–1542), author of the Padmavat (1540) etc.
- Mirabai (1504–1560), author of Mira Padavali etc.
- Tulsidas (1532–1623), author of Ramacharitamanas, Vinay Patrika etc.
- Keshavdas (1555–1617), author of Rasikpriya etc.
- Raskhan (1548–1628), a major figure of the bhakti (devotional) movement.
- Banarasidas (1586–1643) who is known for his poetic autobiography – Ardhakathānaka, (The Half Story),.
- Bihari (1595–1664) became famous by writing Satasai (Seven Hundred Verses).
- Bhushan (1612–1713), author of Shivabavani, Chhatrasal Dashak etc.
- Vrind (1643–1723), author of Nitisatsai, Vrind Satsai etc.
- Guru Gobind Singh (1669–1708), author of Bichitra Natak etc.
- Sūdan (1700–1753), author of Sujān Charitra etc.
- Lallu Lal (1763–1835), translator of Baital Pachisi, Shakuntala etc., and author of Prem Sagar, etc.
- Ganga Das (1823–1913), author of about fifty kavya-granthas and thousands of padas, he is known as Bhismpitama of the Hindi poetry.
- Bharatendu Harishchandra (1850–1885), author of Andher Nagari etc.; his works are compiled in Bharatendu Granthavali.
- Devaki Nandan Khatri (1861–1913), author of mystery novels like Chandrakanta, Bhootnath, etc.
- Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi (1864–1938), author of Kavya Manjusha, Sugandh, Sahitya Sandarbh, Sahitya Vichar, etc.
- Munshi Premchand (1880–1936), considered one of the greatest Hindi novelists of all time. His novels include Godaan, Karmabhoomi, Gaban, Mansarovar, Idgah, etc.
- Maithili Sharan Gupt (1886–1964), author of Saket, Yashodhara, etc.
- Jaishankar Prasad (1889–1937), poet, novelist, playwright, stalwart of the literary Chhayavaadi movement. His greatest works are Kamayani, Dhruvswamini, Skandagupta, etc.
- Makhanlal Chaturvedi (1889–1968), first recipient of Sahitya Akademi Award in Hindi for his work Him Taringini, works include Yug Charan, Pushp Ki Abhilasha, etc.
- Rahul Sankrityayan (1893–1962), the father of Indian travelled literature.
- Suryakant Tripathi ‘Nirala’ (1896–1961), one of the “four pillars” of the Chhayavaad movement.
- Sumitranandan Pant, (1900–1977) eminent Hindi poet who wrote mainly on nature.
- Yashpal (1903–1976), author of Jhutha Sach, Meri Teri Uski Baat, etc.
- Jainendra Kumar (1905–1988), An extremely influential figure in 20th-century Hindi literature.
- Hazariprasad Dwivedi (1907–1979), novelist, literary historian.
- Mahadevi Varma (1907–1987), one of the “four pillars” of the Chhayavaad movement.
- Ramdhari Singh Dinkar (1908–1974), hailed as a Rashtrakavi.
- Nagarjun (1911–1998), hailed as Janakavi (The People’s Poet).
- Bhisham Sahni (1915–2003), novelist, playwright, author of Tamas, Madhavi, etc.
- Nalin Vilochan Sharma (1916–1961), one of the pioneers of Nakenwad movement.
- Phanishwar Nath ‘Renu’ (1921–1977), novelist best known for Maila Anchal, Juloos, etc.
- Harishankar Parsai (1922–1995), known for satirical works.
- Naresh Mehta (1922–2000), poet, playwright, one of the pioneers of Nakenwad movement.
- Mohan Rakesh (1925–1972), novelist, playwright known for Ashadh Ka Ek Din, Andhere Band Kamre, Na Aane Wala Kal, etc.
- Dharmavir Bharati (1926–1997), a renowned writer, author of Gunaho Ka Devta, Suraj Ka Satvan Ghoda, etc.
- Raghuvir Sahay (1929–1990) was a versatile Hindi poet, translator, short-story writer and journalist.
- Nirmal Verma (1929–2005), one of the founders of the Nai Kahani literary movement.
- Kamleshwar (1932–2007), author of Kitne Pakistan.
- Dushyant Kumar (1933–1975), prominent Hindi poet snd composer of ghazals.
- Kashinath Singh (1937–) author of Rehan Par Ragghu, Kashi Ka Assi, etc.
- Narendra Kohli (1940–2021), known for reinventing the ancient form of epic writing in modern prose. Ref wikipedia
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