Hello friends, if you are a student of class XII, then this post is very important for you because today we are going to share with you the important practical file of class 12th board Chemistry Salt Analysis Class 12 Practical File PDF Free with a download link.
The salt analysis is an important practical method, also known as systematic qualitative analysis or qualitative inorganic analysis. In this, the cation and anion of the inorganic salt are identified.
Suppose you have a sample salt, as we all know that any salt has two components anionic component and a cationic component such as (Nacl = Na+ and Cl-). The salt analysis is done to identify the anionic and cationic components.
H-Cl (acid) + NaOH (base) → NaCl + H2O (Salt → Cation + Anion)
Cationic – Basic Radical (Na+)
Anionic – Acidic Radical (Cl-)
Qualitative analysis is carried out through the reactions which are easily perceptible to our senses such as sight and smell. Such reactions involve:
- Formation of a precipitate
- Change in colour
- Evolution of gas etc.
Systematic analysis of an inorganic salt involves the following steps:
- Preliminary examination of solid salt and its solution.
- Determination of anions by reactions carried out in solution (wet tests) and confirmatory tests.
- Determination of cations by reactions carried out in solution (wet tests) and confirmatory tests.
Step-by-Step Process for Salt Analysis
Step 1: Find the inorganic salt whose cation and anion you have to identify.
Step 2: Conduct preliminary tests of ions group-wise until you get a positive result. Anions and cations are classified into groups that share the same group of reagents, therefore, have the same initial test.
Step 3: As long as you have a positive result for the initial test for an anion, do a confirmatory test for that anion. (If you get a positive result, go to step 4. If not obtained, repeat the initial test for the anion.)
Step 4: Conduct preliminary tests for cations group-wise until you obtain a positive result.
Step 5: If you get a positive result, do a confirmatory test for cation.
Step 6: Now you have identified the cations and anions, balance the charges of the cation and the anion to get the chemical formula of the salt. For example, if your cation is Fe3+ and your anion is Cl-, the chemical formula for the salt would be FeCl3.
Salt Analysis Answer Format (Sample)
Aim: To identify the acidic radical and the basic radical of the given inorganic salt.
(i) Preliminary Test for Anion:
(ii) Confirmatory Test for Anion:
(iii) Preliminary Test for Cation:
(iv) Preliminary Test for Cation:
Result: The acidic radical is (anion), and the basic radical is (cation). Therefore, the given salt is identified to be (salt).
Common Cations (Basic Radicals) for Salt Analysis
Common Anions (Acidic Radicals) for Salt Analysis
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